Especially readers who live locally in the Antelope Valley and therefore, after suffering through this summer, are wondering if, thanks to Global warming, this was the hottest summer ever, I suggest checking out the extended article (link below). In the extended article, you’ll learn about the more recent history of the Poppy Reserve’s summer temperatures, if Global warming appears to be affecting those temperatures and, at least, the short term temperature record that was, indeed, set this summer at the Poppy Reserve. The extended article concludes with a discussion on how a new way of displaying the Reserve’s temperatures appears to hold great promise of, when combined with the Reserve’s rainfall data, helping to explain the observed ebbs and flows of the poppy displays; the great seasons and the busts. This being the autumn edition of the newsletter, here is what the experts are predicting for this coming winter’s rains. The mild La Nina condition that the eastern Pacific Ocean has been in for a while, officially ended in May. The weather models are predicting that the eastern Pacific Ocean’s surface temperatures will be pretty normal; neither more than 0.5 degrees warmer, La Nina, nor 0.5 degrees colder, El Nino, through December or January. After that, it’s anyone’s guess. Actually, it’s anyone’s guess all the time. Actually, it doesn’t seem to matter if it normal, La Nina, or El Nino as far as the Reserve’s seasonal rainfall. How directly the Reserve gets hit with an atmospheric river seems to be the main factor impacting the Reserve’s seasonal rainfall. The bottom line is that I don’t know what will happen this winter. Like everyone else, it’s a wait and see. I end with my standard encouragement to visit the Reserve throughout the year. Later autumn and early winter are some of the best times to visit; warm (but not too hot) temperatures and mild (not hurricane force) winds. It is likely you won’t find too many plants blooming this year but the serenity of the Reserve itself makes it well worth a visit.